Structure and Development What types of bone make up the skeleton?
COMPACT BONE composed of structural units called osteons AND SPONGY BONE composed of bony tubules in a honeycomb-like pattern called trabeculae
Types of bones in our skeleton:
There are two types of Bone Development: Intramembraneous Ossification (found in the flat bone in the skull) is an essential process during the natural healing of bone fractures and the initial formation of bones of the head when we are infants; and Endochondral Ossification (found within a cartilage model) where cartilage is present — an essential process during the rudimentary formation of long bones, the growth/length of long bones, and the natural healing of bone fractures. Note: Cartilage NEVER turns into bone — it only replaces it.
Below: Cancellous bone showing its bony trabeculae (pink) and marrow tissue (blue).
Courtesy: Department of Histology,
Jagiellonian University Medical College
Special Note: Bone tissue is different from bones themselves — bones are organs made up of bone tissue as well as marrow, blood vessels, epithelium and nerves, while bone tissue refers specifically to the mineral matrix that form the rigid sections of the organ.
Osseous Tissue — two types of osseous tissue: compact and spongy. Compact bone forms the extremely hard exterior — spongy bone fills the hollow interior.
Periosteum — part of the bone that is used for tendons, ligaments, and muscles — this outer membrane provides an attachment point.
Endosteum — lines the internal surfaces within the bones.
Lacunae — a small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage.
Canaliculi — are microscopic canals between the various lacunae of ossified bone.
Hydroxyapatite — Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 — A calcium phosphate complex that is the primary mineral component of bone — It can be found in teeth and bones within the human body. Thus, it is commonly used as a filler to replace amputated bone or as a coating to promote bone ingrowth into prosthetic implants.
Haversian Canal — are a series of tubes around narrow channels formed by lamellae.
Lamellae — nearly parallel layers of bone tissue found in compact bone (concentric rings).
Chondrocytes — are the only cells found in healthy cartilage — produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix.